On the most popular on-demand printing industry

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On demand printing industry I. The concept of on-demand printing the concept of "pod (printing on demand)" originated from R.R. Donnelly's operation mode of on-demand book printing production in 1989, and later gradually developed into a printing service mode. As the name suggests, "printing on demand" is a service mode for flexible printing based on the actual printing needs of consumers. The traditional printing process is impossible (as shown in Figure 1). To realize on-demand printing, three basic prerequisites must be met: first, digital printing content, second, digital printing machinery and equipment, and finally, digital workflow. On demand printing is the application of digital workflow to drive digital printing machinery and equipment to print digital content into digital printing products according to customer requirements. Therefore, in terms of the technical means and equipment to realize "printing on demand", this kind of printing is also called "digital printing". There is no fundamental difference between "on-demand printing" and "digital printing" in essence, but the former is described from the realized function, and the latter is described from the technical means and equipment used to realize this function, but it is essentially different from the traditional printing process

II. Main features of on-demand printing industry

1 Market scale and market growth rate 10 years ago, the term "on-demand printing" first appeared on drupa 1995. According to the statistics of Pira in the UK, the on-demand printing industry has accounted for 9% of the printing market. It is expected that by 2010, this figure will rise to 20%25%. At present, domestic on-demand printing accounts for about 7% of the overall printing market. In 2005, the domestic printing market was 150billion yuan, and it is growing at a rate of 15% every year. The growth rate of on-demand printing market is only 5% while that of developed countries is 10%. On demand printing is still in the early stage of development in China. From the above data, we can see that there is a big gap between China and foreign countries in terms of on-demand printing, but on the other hand, there is a huge potential in China's on-demand printing market. 2. the speed of technological change of production process innovation and new products. The three basic prerequisites for on-demand printing are on-demand printing machinery, digital workflow and digital content. (1) On demand printing equipment can be divided into three categories. The first category is the on-demand printing machine produced by the world-famous printing machinery manufacturing enterprises. The main representative products are di46 and di74 of Heidelberg. Manroland, gaobao, Japan screen and other enterprises also have corresponding products. The other is the on-demand printing machine produced by Hewlett Packard, which uses electronic ink to print without plate. In 2003, Hewlett Packard produced the web digital printing machine without plate. The third category is on-demand printing machines using laser imaging. The main manufacturers are Fuji Xerox, Kodak nExpress and Xeikon. The technical changes of digital equipment are mainly in the aspects of printing speed, printing format and the effect of printing color performance quality. These technical changes are relatively slow. (2) The innovation and transformation of the printing process are fast, mainly in the development of full digital printing workflow software, the integration and unified output software to meet the printing of multiple typesetting result formats, the management software of printing data resources, the on-demand variable printing production and support software, remote network service software, etc. The innovation of printing technology directly brings greater market to on-demand printing. (3) Digital content is the processing object of on-demand printing. The rapid development of digital graphic technology, digital content protection technology and database technology has expanded the market opportunity of on-demand printing. In particular, the digital content copyright protection technology provides a technical guarantee for the on-demand publishing market, which will stimulate the increase in the demand for short editions in the on-demand printing market. 3. scope of competition China's on-demand printing market has great potential, but the market is still immature and the regional development is uneven. It is mainly concentrated in economically developed Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shanghai and Beijing, while the development in northwest, northeast and other regions is slow. At present, the on-demand printing consumer market, which is a service industry, mainly comes from large enterprises, including multinational corporations, and national institutions. However, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and other cities have a high level of economic development, with diverse and rapid industrial types. This determines that the express industry with rapid growth has also become a major energy consumer. At present, the competition scope of on-demand printing enterprises is mainly regional competition. But between domestic on-demand printing enterprises 4 The competition of poor oil return of buffer has formed a trend from regional competition to national competition. 4. the number and relative scale of competitive enterprises in the past two years, this market has gradually formed a new competition pattern of three camps: the first camp is a "luxury" lineup represented by "foreign monks" such as Sir speed, Kinko's in the United States and impress Alber express in Japan. The other camp is mainly domestic national and regional on-demand printing chain enterprises, mainly including PKU founder Yinjie, Weichuang, Caifeng, Hengsheng, Tongkun, kangwenweiyi, Xiaolv express, etc. The third camp is the number of tens of thousands of individual digital fast printing, typewriting and copying, graphic enterprises distributed in the urban battery extrusion experimental machine, which are mainly aimed at every corner of the single cell of rechargeable battery. 5. number and relative scale of consumers at present, the types of consumer groups for on-demand printing can be divided into office, commercial consumption and mass consumption. Users of enterprises and institutions who use on-demand printing to complete heavy printing tasks in their daily work are all office and commercial consumption users. Enterprises and institutions use the characteristics of short board printing and variable printing of on-demand printing to save operating costs, and some enterprises even use on-demand printing to carry out personalized marketing. For office and commercial consumption, it is the main consumer group of on-demand printing at present, but the number is limited. The other is mass consumption. Personalized printing is becoming a fashion, such as blog e-printing, personalized desk calendar, personalized photo, various personalized souvenir books, personal works printing, etc. This is a huge potential mass consumption market with a very large number. 6. the prevalence of forward integration and backward integration the on-demand printing industry is still in the development stage in China. From the perspective of the vertical development of the industrial chain since the end of 2014, the upstream manufacturers have basically not conducted vertical integration except for individual enterprises. From the industry perspective, there are few national on-demand printing chain enterprises in China at present, and their business scale is not very large, and they have not yet formed a strong economies of scale. On the whole, the prevalence of forward integration and backward integration is not high, which also leaves a huge imagination space for the development and expansion of enterprises engaged in on-demand printing. 7. the degree of differentiation of competitors' products and services the products and services of the on-demand printing industry are highly differentiated, which is also the charm of on-demand printing. Enterprises engaged in on-demand printing can develop market segments and form their own competitive advantages according to their own resource advantages. 8. can companies in the industry realize economies of scale? Printing enterprises on demand have the characteristics of both production-oriented enterprises and service-oriented enterprises. For on-demand printing enterprises, there is a certain negative relationship between the expansion of production scale and unit cost, that is, with the expansion of scale, the unit cost will decrease. Through market research, on-demand printing not only has the characteristics of economies of scale in the operation of individual stores, but also has more significant economies of scale if the on-demand printing enterprise is a chain operation. 9. the necessary resources and the difficulty of entry and exit at present, most on-demand printing enterprises are small-scale, so the investment in equipment is not very large. At the same time, the high degree of intelligence of on-demand printing does not require high production and operation skills, which also causes that the threshold for entering and leaving the industry is not very high. This is also one of the main reasons for the fierce competition in the industry. 10. the profit level of the industry although the on-demand printing industry is not as profitable as it was a few years ago, it is far from the era of low profit. The profit level of the industry is far greater than the average profit of the industry. The industry has a good investment attraction. This can also be proved by the large capital investment of upstream digital printing equipment manufacturers in equipment and process R & D and the investment enthusiasm of market investors in on-demand printing enterprises in recent years. 3、 Competitive analysis of China's on-demand printing industry

1 The five forces model of competition makes an in-depth analysis of the competitive process of the on-demand printing industry, so as to tap the source of competitive pressure and determine the strength of each competitive force, which is particularly important for the managers of any on-demand printing enterprise participating in the competition when making strategic decisions. Professor Michael Porter of Harvard Business School has fully proved that the competitive state of an industry is the result of the joint action of various competitive forces. Then we can also use the competitive model of five forces (as shown in Figure 2) as an analysis tool to analyze the current on-demand printing industry, so as to understand the current competitive status of the industry and the strength of each competitive force. 2. competition between sellers and competitors sellers in the on-demand printing industry refer to large and small enterprises that provide on-demand printing services for consumers. These enterprises are the most powerful competitive force among the five competitive forces. In order to win market position and buyers' favor, they usually do everything at any cost. In the on-demand printing industry, the core of competition is printing time, printing quality, variable data processing capacity, price, new product development, service and brand image. This kind of competition is a dynamic and changing process. Each enterprise constantly adopts equipment upgrading, adding variable data printing software, developing new markets and adding service items to highlight the characteristics of the enterprise and consolidate its market competitive position. If there is no unique advantage in this battlefield, it is difficult to win just by relying on the price war. Now the upstream equipment suppliers are adding fuel to the flames, making the current domestic on-demand printing market increasingly competitive. With the intensification of competition, the compression of profit space, and the impulse of survival and development, on-demand printing enterprises in specific regions have pushed the scope of competition to the national market, and chain operation has become an inevitable trend. Whoever can make the on-demand printing chain bigger and stronger can become a leader in this industry, because only by realizing large-scale operation can we improve the negotiation ability of upstream digital printing equipment, digital workflow software and raw material suppliers, so as to greatly reduce the procurement cost; Only a large number of on-demand printing chain service points can provide customers with fast printing services of the same edition in different places; Only powerful chain enterprises have the ability to develop and promote new markets such as more personalized desk calendars, personal portraits, various commemorative books and personal works printing, so that more potential consumers can become real on-demand printing consumers, promote the personalized on-demand printing market, make it a fashion for people's entertainment consumption, and release this potential mass consumption market. 3. the potential entrant on-demand printing industry is a high-tech integrated industry, which integrates electronic digital technology, network technology, digital technology, printing technology, modern management technology, etc. Digital printing machinery manufacturing enterprises are at the top of the on-demand printing industry chain. Their every move has a profound impact on the survival status of downstream on-demand printing enterprises. When the on-demand printing market capacity continues to expand, upstream

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